A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar

A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Sunday, December 27, 2015

Southern Rhodesia

1931 Scott 26 1sh turquoise blue & black "George V"
Quick History
Before 1923, the territory was administered by the British South Africa Company. By way of history, BSAC, which governed and administered the lands by Royal Charter from 1889-1923, named the territory north of the Zambezi  "Northern Rhodesia", and the lands south of the Zambezi "Southern Rhodesia". Both territories were called by the white settlers, "Rhodesia", after Cecil Rhodes, the founder of BSAC.

1911 Encylopaedia Britannia Map of Rhodesia
The Zambezi River bisects the lands into
 Northern Rhodesia (North Western & North Eastern) & Southern Rhodesia
In 1923, the BSAC no longer administered the territories, and Southern Rhodesia (1924-1964), at the request of the inhabitants,  became a self governing crown colony. (To confuse things, it was known as "Rhodesia", -although not recognized as such internationally- from 1965-1979.)  With independence in 1980, it became Zimbabwe.

Southern Rhodesia
More precisely, a 1922 referendum showed 59% of voters favoring "responsible government" rather than joining the Union of South Africa.

The capital was Salisbury (name changed to Harare after independence), and the population was 38,000 whites (4%) and 922,000 blacks (96%) in 1927.

Stamps were issued under "Southern Rhodesia" between 1924-1953. (One definitive set was issued in 1964 also.)

Northern Rhodesia became a British Protectorate from 1924-1964. With independence in 1964, the name was changed to Zambia.

(My blog post for Northern Rhodesia has more maps and explanation of these turbulent times.) 

At the same time, Southern Rhodesia (or "Rhodesia"), south of the Zambezi, was turned over to the white settlers, who established highly discriminatory laws against the black African majority, who outnumbered the white settlers By 10:1- despite an influx of 200,000 immigrants largely from the British working class between 1945-1970.

Southern Rhodesia joined the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Also known as Central African Federation -"CAF") between 1953-1963. The first stamp for the Federation was issued in 1954.

When Northern Rhodesia became independent as Zambia in 1964, the conservative white minority government of Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared itself independent, and called itself "Rhodesia". The status was not internationally recognized, as it was clearly an attempt to continue with a discriminatory white policy.

The outlaw character of the country persisted until 1979, when the Constitution of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia was passed, and Zimbabwe was recognized as independent in 1980.

1924 Scott 2 1p scarlet "George V"
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Southern Rhodesia 1924-1951, 78 major descriptive numbers. Of those, 40 are CV <$1-$1+, or 52%.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound
1924 Scott 3 1 1/2p bister brown "George V"
The first issue of Southern Rhodesia was an engraved 14 stamp set produced between 1924-30 with the "admiral" design. This was a continuation of the Rhodesia 1913-23 "admiral" issue.

Without a doubt, this is one of the better "looks" for George V.

CV for six stamps is <$1-$3+.

1933 Scott 16 1/2p deep green "George V"
A 13 stamp engraved issue (by Waterlow) with the 3/4 "George V" vignette was released between 1931-37. Various perfs- given minor numbers in Scott- can be found for this issue.

1931 Scott 22 6p rose lilac & black "George V"
The higher denominations are bicolored. CV for the 1931-37 issue is <$1-$3 for eight stamps.

1932 Scott 32 3p dark blue "Victoria Falls"
Also printed by Waterlow, but typographed, were 2p and 3p denomination "Victoria Falls" stamps in 1931. A lovely design indeed.

1941 Scott 37 2p dark brown & green 
"Postage and Revenue"
Between 1935-41, a similar two stamp "Victoria Falls" issue, but with "Postage and Revenue" script along the top frame, was produced. 

1937 Scott 39 2p brown & green 
"Queen Elizabeth, George VI"; Coronation Issue
An interesting "Coronation Issue" (compared to most other British colonies with their use of the common design type) shows Victoria Falls with a train and "Victoria Falls" railroad bridge in the foreground. 

1937 Scott 53 2sh6p violet & blue "George VI"
A 13 stamp set was released in 1937 for definitive use showing George VI in full naval regalia. CV is <$1-$1+ for 10 stamps.

1940 Scott 56 1/2p deep green & dull violet
"Seal of British South Africa Company"
A wonderful eight stamp bicolored engraved issue was released in 1940 for the 50th anniversary of the founding of Southern Rhodesia by Cecil John Rhodes. More correctly, it was the founding of the British charted British South Africa Company on the lands that were called ""Rhodesia".

1940 Scott 57 1p red & violet blue "Fort Salisbury, 1890"
Named after the then British Prime Minister, the city was founded in 1890 by the Pioneer Column, in the service of Cecil Rhodes and the British South Africa Company.

Hosting the Flag at Fort Salisbury on September 13, 1890 (Unknown Artist)
The Pioneer Column was used to obtain rights to the territory of Mashonaland and Matabeleland kingdoms within the future Southern Rhodesia- and quickly, before the Germans, Boers or Portuguese did. ;-)

1940 Scott 58 1 1/2p copper brown & black
"Cecil John Rhodes"
Cecil John Rhodes, very much an archetype of the British imperialist, believed in the positive benefits of colonialism. And to make himself rich through his businesses and mining. ;-)

If one reads the histories of the development of British South Africa, Cecil John Rhodes either is treated with "chauvinistic approval" or "utter vilification" (Quote from historian Richard A. McFarlane).

Certainly, one nice legacy, funded by his estate, was and is the Rhodes Scholarships.

1940 Scott 59 2p purple & bright green
"Pioneer Fort and Mail Coach"
Fort Victoria was also founded by the Pioneer Column in 1890 on their way to Salisbury.

1940 Scott 60 3p dark blue & black
"Rhodes makes Peace, 1896"
The British South Africa Company had their own police force, which they used to control Matabeleland and Mashonaland. This lead to the First Matabele War (1893-94) against the Ndebele Kingdom, and the Second Matabele War (1896-97), also known as the Matabeleland Rebellion, against the Ndebele, and seperately, the Shona.

Cecil Rhodes and the Ndebele make peace in the Matopos Hills 
(Robert Baden-Powell - 1896)
Rhodes walked unarmed into the Matopos Hills encampment and successfully persuaded the Ndebele to stop fighting, Thus ended the Second Matabele War.

1940 Scott 61 4p brown & blue green
"Victoria Falls Bridge"
The railway bridge, built in 1905, is located below Victoria Falls, and crosses the Zambezi River.

Victoria Falls Bridge, under construction, 1905
It was inspired by Rhodes's desire - never fulfilled- to build a railroad from "Cape to Cairo". He wanted the trains, as they went over the bridge, to "catch the spray of the falls".

1940 Scott 62 6p sepia & dull green
"Sir Charles Coghlan"
Charles Coghlan was the first Premier and Prime Minister of self governing Southern Rhodesia (1923-27). A lawyer by trade, he earlier lead the "responsible government" movement, and opposed joining the Union of South Africa.

1943 Scott 64 2p prussian green & chocolate "Mounted Pioneer"
For the 50th anniversary of Matabeleland under British control, a stamp was issued in 1943 honoring the Pioneer Column.

Under the leadership of Frank Johnson, the 250 man force- chosen from the sons of local rich families to help insure British help if they should falter- were successful with their mission. The Pioneer volunteers were each awarded 3,000 acres and 15 mining claims.

Deep Blue
1937 Definitive Issue in Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has seven pages for the stamps of Southern Rhodesia. The Steiner "classic" package pages include part of the regular issues of 1953 also, but not those of the Queen Elizabeth II era.

All Scott major numbers have a space.

1935 Scott 33 1p carmine rose & olive
"Victoria Falls and George V"; Silver Jubilee Issue
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on 1 2/3 page, has 51 spaces for 1924-1940 Southern Rhodesia. The pages are located between Somali Coast and South Africa, with Southern Nigeria sharing 1/3 page.

Subtracting the post 1940 issues in the 1840-1940 catalogue (17 stamps), the coverage in Big Blue is 84%- very good.

Five stamps are CV $10+-$20+.





18,21, 19,20,22,23,



Next Page







A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1924 Scott 8 8p gray green & violet ($10+)
1924 Scott 9 10p rose red & blue ($10+)
1924 Scott (11) 1sh6p yellow & black ($20+)
1931 Scott 20 3p dark blue ($10+)
1935 Scott 36 6p dark violet & black ($10+)
B) (   ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.

1940 Scott 63 1sh dark blue & bright green
"Victoria, George VI, Lobengula's Kraal  and Government House"
Out of the Blue
Fascinating- both the stamps and history.

Note: Maps, drawings, and pics appear to be in the public domain.

Comments appreciated!

Monday, December 21, 2015

Southern Nigeria

1912 Scott 50 4p scarlet & black/yellow "George V"
Quick History
The British protectorate of Southern Nigeria was formed on January 1, 1900 along coastal Nigeria and the Niger River by combining the Niger Coast Protectorate with territories held below Lokaja on the Niger River by the Royal Niger Company.

"Southern Nigeria" stamps depicting Queen Victoria were issued in 1901.

Southern Nigeria Protectorate, 1913
(Other British colonial and protectorate lands in pink)
The British chartered Royal Niger Company had held the lands along the lower Niger beginning in 1879. This prevented the Germans under Bismarck from entering and controlling the lower Niger in the 1890s.

1898 Map showing location of Lagos and Royal Niger Company Lands
In 1906, Lagos colony was added, and the status was upgraded to Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria.

The capital was then Lagos, and the population was 7,800,000 in 1911.

Southern and Northern Nigeria, 1914
In 1914, Southern Nigeria and the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria were combined to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.

So ended the stamp issues of Southern Nigeria.

There were larger differences between the protectorates than their similar names and proximity would suggest.

Southern Nigeria had more economic development, western education was more prominent, and there was a large Christian missionary influence. 

The north was more isolated, had a majority Islamic culture, and had been governed through Emirs. 

In fact, in modern Nigeria, those differences persist, and continue to cause internal tension within the country.

1903 Scott 10 1/2p yellow green & black, Wmk 2, "Edward VII"
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Southern Nigeria 1901-1912, 56 major descriptive numbers. Of those, 25 are CV <$1-$1+, or 45%. The higher denomination stamps are expensive, but the lower denominations have a reasonable CV for the WW classical collector.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound
1903 Scott 12 2p orange brown & black, Wmk 2, "Edward VII"
The first issue for Southern Nigeria was a 3/4 portrait of Queen Victoria in March, 1901 on nine stamps. Actually, the issues of the Niger Coast Protectorate were used in 1900, and again in 1902 (stamp shortage). Although five of the Queen Victoria stamps are a modest CV $1+-$4+, I happen not to have any. ;-)

The first "Edward VII" issue of eleven stamps was released between 1903-04 on Wmk 2 "Crown and C  A" paper. Five stamps are CV <$1-$3+.

1904 Scott 21 1/2p yellow green & black, Wmk 3, "Edward VII"
A second issue of twelve "Edward VII" stamps was produced between 1904-07, but on Wmk 3 "Multiple Crown and C  A" paper.

(If one needs a refresher on British Colonial watermarks, check the Gibraltar post.)

Five stamps are CV <$1-$1+.

Most of the stamps of this issue can either be found on ordinary paper or chalky paper. Scott doesn't catalogue the CV difference, but SG does.

The issue can also be found with two dies of the Head plate- dotted line on cheek five lines up from chin (Die A) vs solid line (Die B). As I have no clear examples to show, consult SG for an illustration.

1907 Scott 33 1p carmine "Edward VII"
"1d": thicker "1"; shorter "d"
The 1907-10 twelve stamp issue of "Edward VII" has different colors than the 1903-04 and 1904-07 issues. CV is <$1-$4+ for nine stamps.

The 1p carmine for this issue has a thicker "1" and a shorter "d" for the "1d" numeral inscription.

1907 Scott 33 1p carmine "Edward VII"
This is the same stamp, but with a nice "socked-on-the-nose" cancel. I must admit, I have a fondness for these SONs. ! I couldn't find a "Bende", but did find a "Bendi" on the 1914 map shown above.

1910 Scott 44 1p carmine "Edward VII"
"1d"; thinner "1"; taller, broader "d"
In 1910, the 1p carmine was redrawn. The "1d" now has a thinner "1" and a taller, broader "d".

Where is "Jebu"?

1912 Scott 48 2 1/2p ultramarine "George V"
In 1912, a twelve stamp issue was released with "George V".  The lower denominations are in one color.

1912 Scott 51 6p red violet & dull violet "George V"
The higher denominations are bicolored, and most of the bicolored stamps (not this one) are also on colored paper. CV for eight stamps is <$1-$3+.

In 1914, the stamps of Southern Nigeria were replaced by those of Nigeria.

Deep Blue
1912 "George V" Issue in Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has three pages for the stamps of 1901-1912 Southern Nigeria, and offers a space for all the major Scott numbers.

1908 Scott 32 1/2p green,"Edward VII"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on two lines of one page, has 14 spaces for the stamps of Southern Nigeria. Coverage is 25%.

The country coverage is located between Somali Coast and on the same page as Southern Rhodesia.

There are no required stamps crossing the CV $10 level.

Coverage could have been a little more generous, as I count eight stamps @ CV <$1-$1+ that could have been added- and, that does not include the stamps where only one stamp among several inexpensive (different watermarked) choices can be put into a space.

The "1902-07" spaces can take either wmk 2 or wmk 3 "Edward VII" stamps.



10 or 21, 11 or 22, (23),(24),




A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold): None
B) (   ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.
C) *1902-07- either wmk 2 or wmk 3 stamps can be put into the spaces.

1912 Scott 49 3p violet/yellow "George V"
Out of the Blue
I can understand why British colony stamps are popular. They have a royal stately design that is the very definition of "classic". (I suppose one can argue, in their sameness, that they are also dull and monotonous- but, if so, why do they have appeal? ;-)

I especially like the British colonials that have a clear cancel from an exotic and forgotten location.

Note: Maps appear to be in the public domain.

Have a comment?

Tuesday, December 15, 2015

South Australia

1867 Scott 51 1sh deep brown "Victoria"
Quick History
The colony was proclaimed on December 28, 1836, intended for free immigrants, rather than a convict settlement. Much of the colony was arid or semi-arid, and the capital, (Port) Adelaide, was where most people settled, and to a lesser extent, along the south-eastern coast and the Murray River..

South Australia
Stamps were printed in 1855 by London's Perkins Bacon, and, from the same plates in 1856, locally, by Printer of Stamps, Adelaide.

Responsible Government was initiated in 1857.

South Australia, along with six other British colonies, united in 1901 to form the Commonwealth of Australia.

The population was 358,000 in 1901.

Wheat, wine and wool are the export products of South Australia.

South Australia 1916 Map
Stamps for South Australia continued to be used and produced until 1912, as a common stamp for the new Commonwealth of Australia (The "Roo") was not issued until 1913. In fact, the "colony" stamps of Australia were valid on postage until 1966!

1897 Scott 108 3p olive green, Perf 13, "Victoria"
Into the Deep Blue
The 2014 Scott Classic Specialized 1840-1940 catalogue has, for South Australia 1855-1912, 243 major number descriptions. Of those, 20 or 8% are CV <$1-$1+. Raising the bar to CV $10 yields 86 total. or 35%. Clearly, South Australia stamps are on the expensive side. The WW classical era collector may only have a "representative" collection. I know I do. ;-)

In addition, many of the catalogue issues are determined by various perforations/rouletting or watermarks- so careful attention to those details are required.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
12 Pence = 1 Shilling
20 Shillings = 1 Pound
1867 Scott 51 1sh deep brown, Perf 11 1/2, "Victoria"
This rather striking design of Queen Victoria (A1) was engraved by Perkins Bacon of London for South Australia in 1855, and used on forty-six (Scott) major or bolded minor number stamps between 1855-1884. The issues are rather complicated, with varying colors for the same denomination, and many different perforations found, besides imperforate and rouletted specimens. Wmk 6 "Star with Long Narrow Points"(mostly), and wmk 7 "Star with Short Broad Points" paper was used.

The stamps, CV wise, are also rather expensive with only six stamps <$10. Certainly, a specialist would enjoy these issues with all the complications!

1868 Scott 58 2p orange red, Wmk 72, Perf  10, "Victoria"
Between 1868-1906, the two pence denomination with this "A6" design can be found on fourteen stamps varying by color, perforation or rouletting, or watermark.

1876 Scott 64 1p green, Wmk 73
The one penny "A6" design was used on seven stamps between 1868-1906.They are determined mostly by large color differences, but also by watermark.

Top Left: Wmk 72 "Crown and S A, Letters Farther Apart"
Top Right: Wmk 7 "Star with Short Pointed Points"
Bottom Left: Wmk 73 "Crown and SA, Letters Close"
Bottom Right: Wmk 74 "Crown and Single-Lined A"
Speaking of watermarks, here are all the examples cited, except for the Wmk 6 "Star and Long Narrow Points".

1876 Scott 71 8p on 9p bister brown, Wmk 7
In 1876, the nine pence was overprinted "8 Pence" on a bister brown color. The regular nine pence denomination was issued in a rose lilac color.

This "A3" design nine pence was a favorite for surcharge, with six examples given a "ten pence" surcharge  between 1866-69.

1887 Scott 80 6p pale blue, Perf 10
Between 1883-90, a four stamp issue, each with a new design, was produced. The 6p pale blue, shown here, is perf 10, while the 1893 6p blue is perf 15. Both have Wmk 73.

1895 Scott 107 2 1/2p blue violet "Kangaroo, Palm"
Between 1895-97, an eight stamp issue, perf 13, was produced, including two new designs. The "Kangaroo, Palm" is shown here, while the "Coat of Arms" design fronts the Big Blue section.

1895 Scott 109 4p bright violet, Perf 13
The 1895-97 issue 4p bright violet design was originally issued in 1990 as a 4p violet with different perfs. It can also be found as a 4p green, but surcharged 2 1/2p in 1891 and 1893 with different perfs respectively.

1899 Scott 115 1p carmine , Wmk 73, Perf 13
The 1p carmine of 1899 was formerly issued in blue green (1875), green (1876), green (1893-perf 15), and green (1895-perf 13). No reason a nice design shouldn't be recycled. ;-)

1902 Scott 123 6p blue green (16-16.5 mm)
The "A19" design for the twelve stamp 1902-03 issue is characterized by a thinner letters for "Postage". Several of the stamps in this issue, including the one shown here, can have different lengths of the value inscription in the bottom tablet.

1904 Scott 134 2p purple, Perf 12 X 11 1/2
The 1904 two pence was issued in purple. Other issues for the two pence include orange red (eight examples with different rouletting/perfs), orange (three examples with different perfs), and purple (Perf 13). and purple (Wmk 74). If one doesn't like checking perfs or watermarks, one will not enjoy the issues of South Australia. ;-)

1906 Scott 138 8p ultramarine, Wmk 73
The "A20" design, used in 1904-08 (Wmk 73) on nine stamps, and in 1906-12 (Wmk 74) on nine stamps, is characterized by thicker letters for "Postage".

1906 Scott 144 1/2p green, Wmk 74, "Adelaide Post Office"
The 1/2 pence denomination, issued in 1899 (perf 13), 1904 (perf 12 X 11 1/2, Wmk 73), and 1906 (Wmk 74) has the distinction of showing a non-queen portrait: The Adelaide Post Office.

1906 Scott 150 4p red orange, Wmk 74
The "A20" design is found either as Wmk 73 or Wmk 74. But the "A20" 4p red orange denomination illustrated here is only found as Wmk 74.

1880-91 Scott O44 1p blue green, Wmk 73
Between 1868-74, the South Australia government departments overprinted regular issues in red, black or blue with the initials of the respective department (P. W. (Public Works), I.S. (Inspector of Sheep) etc). There were some 55 initials used for various departments on 25 different stamp issues. I wouldn't mind finding an "L.A." overprinted stamp for "Lunatic Asylum". ;-) Unfortunately, these stamps are quite expensive CV wise (Usually Hundreds), and out of reach of the casual WW collector.

But there were "O.S." overprinted stamps for general government use  beginning in 1874. The thicker "O.S." overprint shown here is found on 24 stamps between 1874-1890. Eight stamps are CV $2-$10.

1896 Scott O69 2p orange, Perf 13
A thinner "O.S." was used on 25 stamps between 1891-1897. One can find 13 stamps @ CV <$1-$10.

Deep Blue
1899 Issue, Wmk 73, in Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has sixteen pages for the regular and official 1855-1912 stamps of South Australia. All major Scott numbers have a space. But there tends to be quite a few minor numbers in the Scott catalogue, often for color shades for a particular year of issue. And the bolded 24 minor numbers for perforation variations on major number 1867-74 Scott 41-53 are not given a space in Steiner. (Not that it would make that much difference to most WW collectors, as the CV for these bolded minor numbers range from $10+-$1000+.)

For the WW generalist, certainly Steiner should be adequate- too adequate really as many of my pages are empty. ;-)

For those taking a more than a casual interest in South Australia, the Stanley Gibbons catalogue and album page layout night be more appropriate.

1895 Scott 110 5p dull violet, Perf 13, "Coat of Arms"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on one page, has 32 spaces for the 1855-1912 stamps of South Australia. No official stamps are included.

Coverage is 13%. Considering the fairly expensive nature of South Australia stamps, the low coverage rate might be appropriate.

The page is located between Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and Somali Coast (Djibouti).

Several spaces can be filled by seven choices and nine choices!

There are five spaces with CV $10+ required: one of them is CV $45- the 1870 Scott 29 1p grayish green.


One penny (Illustrated): 1 or 5 or 10 or 14 or 15 or 28 or 29
Blank Space: (16)

57 or 64,
Two pence (Illustrated): 54 or 55 or 56 or 58 or 60 or 61 or 61B or 62 or 65




102 or 107, 103 or 110,

105,106, (Choices not taken earlier: 107 or 110),

1899-1902 (Actually 1896-1902)

121 or 148 or 149, 122 or 150, 137 or 152, 124 or 124A or 138 or 153,

125 or 139 or 154, 127 or 140 or 155,

A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1870 Scott 29 1p grayish green ($45)
1882 Scott 75 1/2p on 1p green ($10+)
1876 (Scott 71) 8p on 9p bister brown ($10+) 
1896 Scott 113B 2sh carmine ($10+)
1903 Scott 124 8p ultramarine ($10+)
B) (   ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.
C) *1900-12- choices wmk 73 vs wmk 74

1895 Scott 106 2p orange , Perf 13, "Victoria"
Out of the Blue
Back in the 1990s, I started a collection of Australian States. I didn't get all that far, but the attraction to specialize in these well designed (and complex) issues is still strong.

Note: Maps appear to be in the public domain.

Have a comment?