A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar

A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Thursday, July 26, 2012


1891 Scott 17 5c green/greenish "Commerce"
Stamps of French Colonies overprinted "Guadeloupe"
Quick History
Guadeloupe was an island French colony in the West Indies between Montserrat and Dominica. The Colony consisted of Basse-Terre, with the Capital (also named Basse-Terre), separated by the narrow "Salt River"sea channel from Grande-Terre, and five smaller dependencies. Guadeloupe is 580 square miles in area, and had a population of 300,000 in 1936.

Location of Guadeloupe at the southern end of the Leeward Islands
Guadeloupe was named by Christopher Columbus for Santa Maria de Guadeloupe in 1493, after landing on the island in pursuit of fresh water during his second voyage.

The island then was fought over and claimed by the British, the French, and even the Swedes for several centuries until the Treaty of Vienna in 1815.

Slavery was abolished in 1848.

Stamps issued under French Administration began in 1884.

Guadeloupe, beginning in 1946, became an an overseas department of France.

Sugar cane has been the traditional crop. Tourism today is an important economic industry, with over 80% of the visits from France.

Map of the Guadeloupe island complex
Into the Deep Blue
The 2011 Scott Classic Specialized catalogue has 201 major descriptions for the regular, semi-postal. and postage due categories. Of those, 12 out of 44 regular issue stamp descriptions for the 1884-1901 years (27%), and 113 descriptions out of 157 ( 72%) for the years 1903-1939 have a catalogue value <$4.

With the exception of many of the classic 19th century, Guadeloupe stamps are generally "affordable".

Highlights include surcharged stamps through 1891. a long 1892-1901 "Navigation and Commerce" issue, and two (1905-27, 1928-40) long inexpensive pictorial issues.

A closer look at the stamps and issues

1889 Scott 3 3c on 20c red/green "Commerce"
Surcharged  French Colonies issue
Beginning in 1884, nine French Colonies stamps were surcharged with an outer border around the stamp as illustrated above. Three types of surcharges were used: the one above is type "c".  Fairly expensive catalogue value ($10+-$60) for the others: the only one @ $5+ is shown. ;-)

1891 Scott 10 & 11 5c on 10c black/lavender & 1fr bronze green
1891 saw two surcharged stamps (CV $10+) issued on the the French Colonies "Commerce" design. "G P E" are initials for Guadeloupe?

1891 Scott 23 35c deep violet/orange
In 1891, a 15 stamp issue was produced by overprinting "Guadeloupe" on the French Colonies design denominations.

"Guadeloupe" overprinted 1891 Issue

Six of the issue stamps are CV $1+-$7+, with the rest CV $10+-$100+.

Of interest, the "Guadeloupe" overprint can be found as "Gnadeloupe", "Guadbloupe", "Guadelonpe", and "Guadelouep". Eleven of the 59 bolded minor number varieties are $10+.

1892-1901 Scott 30  5c green/greenish
1901 Scott 31 5c yellow green
The "Navigation and Commerce" design was issued for Guadeloupe from 1892-1901. This 18 stamp set has seven stamps with CV $1+, and three more with CV $2+-$3+. The general collector should be able to amass a representative sample inexpensively.

The 5c green is found in two varieties as illustrated above.

1903 Scott 45 5c on 30c brown/bister
Surcharged in black
Five surcharged stamps were issued in 1903, as shown. "G & D" indicates "Guadeloupe and Dependencies"? The CV ranges from $4-$40+. But there are several fonts used, as well as inscribed letter mistakes: so, a gold mine for the specialist. ;-)

1905-27 Scott 59 10c rose "Harbor at Basse-Terre"
Has "Basse-Terre" postmark
From 1905-27, the first long pictorial issue was produced. This 29 stamp issue had three designs; the above was used for the nine lower denomination stamps. All of the stamps in the series are fairly low in CV, ranging from <$1-$2 for all but three stamps.

1906 Scott 70 35c black/yellow "View of La Soufriére"
The second design, found on 16 stamps, is shown above. Quite striking, No? La Soufriére, at 1,467 meters high, is an active volcano on Basse-Terre.

1924-27 Scott 86 25c on 5fr deep blue/orange
"Pointe-à-Pitre, Grand-Terre"
The third design in the series (found on four high denomination stamps) is shown above. Located at the junction between the two larger islands, Pointe-à-Pitre is actually Guadeloupe's largest urban area today.

The stamp above is from a 10 stamp surcharged issue from 1924-27. CV is <$1-$1+ for eight stamps.

1928-40 Scott 101 10c bister brown & deep blue
"Sugar Mill"
Between 1928-40, a 42! stamp set was issued, again with three designs. The French have a way with designs. ;-) 

For the lower denominations, the "Sugar Mill" was pictured on eight stamps. Sugar is still the main export for Guadeloupe. 

Catalogue Value for all but three stamps is <$1-$1+.

1928-40 Scott 107 40c yellow & violet "Saints Roadstead"
The second design, on 15 stamps, pictures "Saints Roadstead", mountain peaks found in Guadeloupe.

The "Sainte Rose" postmark is from the northern part of Basse-Terre.

1928-40 Guadeloupe Issue
The last design, "Harbor Scene" (not illustrated), is found on 19 higher denomination stamps for the 1938-40 set.

One could argue that the French colonies put out too many stamps in a set, but they are well designed. ;-)

1915-17 semi-postal Scott B2 15c on 5c violet
"Harbor at Basse-Terre"
A few semi-postals are known from Guadeloupe. The 1938 and 1939 semi-postals were the common design type for Curie and the French Revolution. But the two 1915-17 semi-postals (example illustrated) were surcharged on the 10c rose and 15c violet from the 1905-27 issue. 

1905-06 postage due Scott J19 30c rose "Gustavia Bay"
Finally, who says that postage dues have to be drab or functional? The French don't. ;-) Above is an example from an eight stamp postage due issue for 1905-06. The CV a modest <$1-$3+.

1928 postage due Scott J32 30c slate & olivine 
"Avenue of Royal Palms"
The last classic issue of postage dues for Guadeloupe is shown above. The CV for the whole thirteen stamp set ranges from <$1-$2+.

Deep Blue
The "Navigation and Commerce" Issue in Deep Blue

Deep Blue (Steiner) has 16 pages, and follows the major Scott numbers for spaces. 

There are no extra spaces for the 59 bolded minor numbers for the error inscribed overprinted 1891 "Guadeloupe" stamps. A quadrilled page may be needed.

1924-27 Scott 90 1.05fr on 2fr vermilion
"Pointe-à-Pitre, Grand-Terre"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on four pages, has 124 stamp spaces for regular, semi-postal, and postage due categories. Coverage is a robust 62%.

A) BB, for the most part, presents a nice aggressive selection. For instance, the 1889 surcharged French colonial "Commerce" stamps are represented by five spaces!: 3,(4),(5),6,7. The Scott 7 10c on 40c red/straw is a $35CV, and on the "Most Expensive" list. In addition, the Scott 4 & 5, blank space choices, are CV $20+.
1891 Scott 22 30c brown/bister

B) The 1891 overprinted "Guadeloupe" French colonial "Commerce" stamps have eight spaces, including a blank space Scott 22 30c brown/bister ($30).

1905-27 Guadeloupe Pictorials

C) The 1905-27 pictorial series has 24 spaces. Missing though are 67,74,79,81, & 82 (CV $1+-$6).

D) The 1928-40 series has 33 spaces. Missing are 123,125,126,127,132,133,135,136,137 (CV <$1-$2+).

E) The Scott 7 ($35), mentioned above, is the only stamp to reach the $35 threshold. But there are 10 more stamps between $10-$30 CV in BB. See the specifics located below the checklist.









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Semi-postal stamps



Postage Due



A) Most expensive stamps ($10 threshold) include:
1889 (Scott 4) 15c on 20c red/green ($20+)
1889 (Scott 5) 25c on 20c red/green ($20+)
1889 Scott 6 5c on 1c black/lilac blue ($10+)
1889 Scott 7 10c on 40c red/straw ($35)
1891 Scott 18 10c black/lavender ($10+)
1891 (Scott 22) 30c brown/bister ($30)
1903 Scott 47 15c on 50c ($10+)
1935 Scott 142 40c gray brown ($10)
1935 Scott 143 50c dull red ($10)
1935 Scott 144 1.50fr dull blue ($10)
1935 Scott 145 1.75fr lilac rose ($10)

B) (  ) around a number is a suggested blank space choice

C) *B3 space in BB has "1.75 F + 90 C"; should say "1.75 fr + 50c".

D) There are some minor color descriptions in BB which have changed with the current Scott catalogue. I have made no mention, as the descriptions should not cause confusion.

1940 Scott 112 60c ultramarine & carmine
"Saints Roadstead"
Out of the Blue
Guadeloupe is an ideal French Colony for the WW classical collector. A nice variety of regular and surcharged classic stamps, and two long attractive pictorial issues. And generally inexpensive.

Note: Maps appear to be in the public domain.

Have a comment?

Friday, July 20, 2012

Griqualand West

1877 Scott 15 1sh green
Overprinted red "G" on Cape of Good Hope
Quick History
If it wasn't for the newly discovered Diamond Fields, neither Transvaal (The Boars), or Cape Colony (The British) would have been interested in this backwater area. The Griqua had settled there to avoid the Europeans, and called it Griqualand West. (There was also a Griqualand  East, but they never issued stamps.)

In the early 1870s, diamonds were discovered.  The Big Hole was dug by 50,000 miners using picks and shovels, and eventually yielded 2,700 kg of diamonds. Cecil Rhodes, founder of De Beers, began his career there.

Since the Griqua knew they would not be able to withstand the European onslaught, they asked for British protection, the lesser of two unpalatable choices.

A Protectorate was declared from Cape Colony in 1871. Then, in just two years, the British declared that Griqualand West would become a Crown Colony. Kimberley, which swelled to a population of 40,000 in 1873, was made the Capital.

Cape of Good Hope stamps were overprinted with a "G  W", or a "G", and were issued from 1874-1878.

In 1880, Both Griqualand West and Griqualand East were annexed to the Cape Colony.

Although stamp production for Griqualand West ceased, the remaining stocks of overprinted stamps were subsequently used for postal duties in Cape Town and Cape Colony.

1885 Map of South Africa with Griqualand West in the center
Into the Deep Blue
The 2011 Scott Classic catalogue has 102 major number descriptions for Griqualand West. Of those, 5 stamps are CV $7-$10, 5 stamps are CV $10+-$20, 11 stamps are CV $20+-$30, 23 stamps are CV $30+-$50, and the rest are CV $50+.

Inexpensive they are not. ;-)

In fact, Big Blue has never had Griqualand West as a country in the album.

But the history, the "Diamond Rush" swelling of population, and the resulting need for postal services and stamps, seems too good to pass up entirely, in my view. Some world wide classical collectors may want to have at least a representative collection from this fascinating period.

So expense one can control if one wants only a representative selection.

The second challenge is a bit more problematic.


Since all of the Griqualand West stamp production consisted of, usually, a single letter "G" overprinted on an inexpensive Cape of Good Hope stamp, Forgeries abound.

It behooves the generalist collector to have Griqualand West stamps certified as genuine.  - A piece of advice, that I have not, as yet, heeded for the stamps illustrated in the blog. :-(   

A closer look at the stamps and issues

1877 Scott 16 1sh green with red "G" overprint
In 1877, a black "G" was overprinted on the 1p, while a red "G" was overprinted on the 1/2p, 4p, 6p,1sh, and 5sh values. Scott recognizes ( and illustrates) seven types of "G" script for these values. Obviously, the Scott number depends on the script type one has.

1878 Scott 71 1p rose with black "G" overprint
Note the Cape Town postmark?
In 1878, there were 29 more major numbers recognized by Scott, all with black overprint, and having nine different script overprints.

This particular stamps shows a "Cape Town" postmark. This might be a remaindered Griqualand West stamp being posted from Cape Town after 1880, a legitimate use. Or, more nefariously, a "Cape Town" postmarked stamp that a forger applied a big fat "G" on, and made a nice profit. ;-)

1878 Scott 102 5sh orange with black "G" overprint
This stamp is part of a 5 stamp grouping (Scott 97-102), which had the black "G" overprint applied. For some intuitive reason, I believe this overprint is genuine. ;-)  I'm not so sure of the other two examples.

Deep Blue
The Deep Blue album (Steiner) has 5 pages for Griqualand West, and follows the Scott catalogue sequence exactly.

Out of the Blue
Fascinating history of real world events represented by these pieces of paper. I should take my own advice about getting these certified though. ;-)

Note: Map, picture appear to be in the public domain.


Diamond Fields- washing the deposits

Saturday, July 14, 2012


1875 Scott 7A 1p green "Queen Victoria" 
Grenada has the "Chalon Head" design
Quick History
Grenada is an island at the southern end of the Grenadines. It is located in the Caribbean Sea northeast of Venezuela, northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, and southwest of Saint Vincent. The island originally was a French colony from 1689-1763, but became a British colony during the Seven Years' War  in 1763.

Nutmeg was introduced in 1843; and today Grenada is known as  the "Island of Spice", as it supplies 40% of the world's nutmeg.

The island is 132 square miles in area, the population was 90,000 in the 1940's, and the Capital is St. George's.

In 1861, Grenada issued the 1p green and the 6p rose with the iconic "Chalon Head" portrait of Queen Elizabeth. Other countries that have issued the "Chalon Head" include Canada, Nova Scotia, Tasmania, New Zealand, The Bahamas, Natal, New Brunswick, Queensland, and Prince Edward Island.

Grenada remained a Crown Colony from 1877-1950, when moves towards autonomy by Grenadians - both peaceful and violent- occurred. Independence was granted in 1974.

In 1983 the U.S. lead an invasion to overthrow the  "People's Revolutionary Government".

Today Grenada is a member of the Commonwealth realm.

Into the Deep Blue
The 2011 Scott Classic Specialized catalogue, from 1861-1952, has 189 major stamp descriptions. Of those,  100 are <$4, or 53%. However, Grenada's 19th century stamps (54 total) only have 10 stamps  <$4.

A closer look at he stamps and issues

1864 Scott 3 1p green "Queen Victoria Chalon Head"
Rough Perf 14 to 16; wmk 5- "Small Star"
In 1861, Grenada first issued the 1p "Chalon Head" on unwatermarked paper. But in 1864, a watermarked variety was issued as illustrated above. Note the rough and ragged perforations. Contrast with the 1p green (Scott 7A), illustrated at the blog header, which was released in 1875 with clean cut 14 perforations.

This stunning design (Don't you agree?) had watermark 5 "Small Star", while the 1875 variety had a "Large Star".

Let's look....

Left: wmk 5 "Small Star"; Right: wmk 6 "Large Star"
I took this pic without watermark fluid; that is how obvious the watermarks were on these examples. ;-)

But I had a bit of a problem matching Scott's color description to my Scott 7A.

Scott has the 1875 Scott 7A listed as "yellow green". No way is my example (at the blog header) a "yellow green". ;-) Definitely a "green" color to me. 

Is the stamp clean cut perforation 14? Check. (Eliminates an 1873 Scott 6 1p "blue green" with clean cut ~15 perforations.)

Is it "Large Star" watermark? Check. The only possibility is Scott 7A.

What does Stanley Gibbons say?

Ah-hah! Color can range from yellow-green to GREEN. (SG 14). !  ;-)

Lesson: Take the Scott color descriptions with a grain of salt.

1863 Scott 4 6p rose
Rough perf 14-16; wmk "Small Star"
Another "Chalon Head" issue was the 1863 6p rose. Although the design is classic, the ragged perforations around the edges take away from the aesthetics of the stamp. 

1871 Scott 5 6p vermilion
ragged perf 14-16; wmk "Small Star"
The 1863  6p denomination was replaced  in 1871 by a vermilion colored stamp.

By the way, the CV for the "Chalon Head" stamps shown so far range from $9-$20.

I can't think of a more attractive design, other than arguably the Falkland Island Queens (See Falkland Island blog).

1881 Scott 8 1/2p purple & Scott 10 4p blue
1875 Scott 11 1sh purple surcharged in dark blue
Revenue Designs
Beginning in 1875, undenominated revenue stamps were surcharged with a value, and a "POSTAGE" overprint, which made them valid for regular postage.

CV for the surcharged revenue stamps illustrated above is $7+-$20.

Actually, Grenada continued to surcharge revenue stamps until 1891. Most are CV $20+-$60+, although there are also CV's up to $21,000. ;-)

1883 Scott 24 6p red lilac "Queen Victoria"
In 1883, a seven stamp set with the more typical Queen portrait was issued. CV for the six stamps is $1+-$10+.

Confusingly, when I looked at the watermarks ( Colonial wmk 2- "Crown & C A") on this issue, many were inverted. Scott (and more fully SG) explains that alternate horizontal rows were printed inverted (tête-bêche), and therefore 50% of the watermarks will be found inverted.

1883 Scott 21 1p rose inscribed "Grenada Postage"
1887 Scott 30 1p rose "Queen Victoria"
Inscribed "Grenada Postage & Revenue"
The 1883 1p rose in the set shares the "Grenada Postage" inscriptions with the other members of the issue.

But in 1887, a 1p rose was issued with a modified inscription as illustrated here.  Of interest, Big Blue includes the 1883 Scott 21 (CV $4), but not the 1887 Scott 30 ($ CV 1+).  ;-)

1886 Scott 27 1p on 1 1/2 p orange & green
Surcharged Revenue
As mentioned earlier, Grenada continued to surcharge revenue stamps for postal use. The above lovely example was issued in 1886. Do you think the 1p surcharge was slightly moved to the right side of the stamp to not deface the Queen? ;-)

By the way, I call this stamp the "Crying Chalon Head", because if one enlarges the image, there is a "tear" rolling down the right cheek of the Queen.

1895-99 Scott 40 1p lilac & carmine rose
"Queen Victoria" eight stamp set
In 1895, another "Queen Victoria" issue was produced. Other British colonies clearly share this design. CV ranges from <$1-$8 for four stamps.

1898 Scott 47 2 1/2p ultramarine
"Columbus Flagship, La Concepcion"
This lovely 400th anniversary commemorative stamp has a depiction of the Flagship, "La Santa Maria de la Inmaculada Concepcion".

The third voyage of Christopher Columbus
Of interest, in August, 1898 during his third voyage,, Columbus had sighted the island and named it "Concepcion".

1902 Scott 49 1p violet & carmine rose "King Edward VII"
Wmk 2 "Crown & C A"
In 1902, a 10 stamp "King Edward VII" set was issued with the Crown Agent watermark "Crown & C A".

One will note the design similarities with the preceding "Victorian" issue.

Catalogue value for seven stamps varies from <$1-$5+.

An identical 10 stamp set was produced in 1904-06, this time with Watermark 3 " Multiple Crown & C A". This set is more expensive, with four stamps from $3-$7.

If one needs a refresher on Crown Agent watermarks, see the Gibraltar blog post. ;-)


1906-11 Scott 68 1/2 p green "Seal of the Colony"
From 1906-11, a nine stamp set (wmk 3 )was produced with the "Seal of the Colony" design. This handsome issue has six stamps with CV <$1-$5+. 

In 1908, a 10sh and 1sh issue, with wmk 2, was produced. Be aware that the wmk 3 1sh is CV $5, while the 1908 1sh with wmk 2 has a a CV of $30+. ;-)

1913 Scott 80 1p carmine wmk 3 "George V"
1923 Scott 93 1p brown wmk 4
Grenada's  George V design is found with two watermarks.

In 1913-14, there was a 12 stamp issue with watermark 3  " Multiple Crown & C A".  Then between 1921-29, a 22 stamp issue with watermark 4 "Multiple Crown and Script C A" was forthcoming. This latter issue had some new colors (1p brown illustrated)  and new denominations, but also overlapped the 1913-14 issue.

The 1913-14 issue has nine stamps with CV of <$1-$2.

1921-29 Scott 95 2p orange
Color is found in both 1913-14 wmk 3 & 1921-29 wmk 4 issues
As mentioned, stamps with identical colors may be found for the two issues. The Gibraltar blog post has an example of the wmk 3 & wmk 4 watermarks.

The CV for the 1921-29 issue finds thirteen stamps with valuations of <$1-$2+.

1921-29 Scott 100 3p violet/yellow
Three varieties found based on wmk and surface/completely colored paper.
There were two stamps issued in 1914 for the 1913-14 set that were on surface colored paper: 3p violet/yellow, and 1sh black/green. Therefore the illustrated 3p can be found on surface or completely colored paper with wmk 3, and on completely colored paper with wmk 4. ;-)

1934 Scott 114 1/p green "Grand Anse Beach"
In 1934, a 10 stamp George V pictorial set was issued.  Nicely designed, with a CV of <$1-$2+ for eight stamps.

1934 George V  Pictorials in Deep Blue
Rather than just Kings, Queens, or Colony Seals, the 1934 set added pictorial scenes of Grenada. Actually, many British colonies during the 1930s had a similarly designed series. They tend to be one of the more popular stamp issue for today's British colonies collector.

1938 Scott 133 1p black brown & black  Perf 12 1/2 "Seal of the Colony"
In 1938, an 11 stamp set with identical pictorial scenes was issued for George VI. CV is <$1-$2+ for ten stamps. Be aware that there are minor number perforation varieties ( 12 1/2 X 13 1/2; 13 1/2 X 12 1/2) available.

1938 Scott 134 1 1/2p scarlet & black "View of Grand Etang"
I think you will agree that the 1930s pictorial design stamps for Grenada in particular, and the British Colonies generally, are very nice indeed. ;-)

Here is a view of Grand Etang Lake, which is in a broken down volcanic caldera, and has been taken over by the tropical rain forest. Ah...., to be there now. :-)

1939 Scott 136 2 1/2p ultramarine "View of St. George's"
I measured carefully the perforations for this stamp: 12 1/2 all around. Why? Because the Scott 136a 12 1/2 X 13 1/2 variety is CV $240. ;-)

1916 War Tax Scott MR2 1p scarlet
Grenada only produced two War Tax stamps. Of interest, though, is the 1916 color of the 1p stamp is scarlet (Scott 80a). Contrast that with the more common carmine color, which is illustrated earlier in the blog.

Deep Blue
The 1921-29 George V issue in Deep Blue
The Deep Blue (Steiner) album has thirteen pages, and follows the Scott catalogue major number sequence. No extra spaces are given for the minor number George VI Pictorial perforation varieties.

And as one would expect, the expensive ( Example: Scott 18 1p orange & green with "Postage" in red manuscript CV $21,000) catalogue numbers are given a space. ;-)

1906-11 Scott 69 1p carmine "Seal of the Colony"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on two pages, has 57 stamp spaces. Coverage is 30%.

A) BB does not include any stamps prior to 1883; some 21 major numbers dated from 1861. So no "Chalon Head" Victorians. :-(  Admittedly, many of the stamps are expensive, but there are five "Chalon Heads" available from $7+-$15.

B) As per usual, both the King Edward VII and the George V issues with two watermarks are given one space.

C) Postage Due 1892-1922 ( 4 spaces): There are two similar designs-D1 & D2.The illustration for the 1p is D1. But BB includes the D2 type designed stamps within the year dates (1892-1922), and the 1 1/2p black is J12, which only comes as a D2 design. Long story short: I include both D1 and D2 design stamps as choices.

D) OTOH, BB does a good job in keeping out more expensive stamps. The only stamp to cross the $10 threshold was a 1921-22 postage due (Scott J12).




48 or 58, 49 or 59, (50)



79 or 91, 80 or 92, 93,94,96,81 or 95, 82 or 97,
83 or 89 or 100, 99,101,102,84 or 103,105,(85),(104),


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Postage Due
J1 or J8, J12, J2 or J9 or J13, J3 or J10 or J14,

War Tax

A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
Postage Due 1892-1922 Scott J12 1 1/2p black ($10+ Mint)
B) (   ) around a number is a suggested blank space choice.
C) *Postage Due 1892-1922: There are two similar designs-D1 & D2.The illustration for the 1p is D1. But BB includes the D2 type designed stamps within the year dates (1892-1922), and the 1 1/2p black is J12, which only comes as a D2 design. Long story short: I include both D1 and D2 design stamps as choices.

1938 Scott 135 2p orange & black 
"Clarior e tenebris" - "Brighter through the darkness"
Out of the Blue
I really like the "Chalon Head"'s, and the 1934 & 1938 Pictorial designs are fine too. ;-)

Comment?  Go ahead!

Note: Map, picture appear to be in the public domain.

Pic of St. George's by Jhwelsch in 2000